Thirty Years’ War
- (1618–1648)Though a conflict of vast scale throughout the European continent, the focus of the Thirty Years’ War was on issues peculiar to the Habsburg lands and Germany, where the Habsburgs acted as emperors. The Reformation had brought Protestantism to much of central Europe; the kingdom of Bohemia, under Habsburg control since 1526, was, confessionally speaking, a very special case. Here, since the first third of the 15th century, a local variant of Christianity, Utraquism, had flourished among a broad segment of the population. Both laity and clergy partook of communion in both kinds. The ascent of the devoutly Catholic Ferdinand II as king of Bohemia (1617) and German emperor (1619) alarmed Protestants of all persuasions. In 1619, the Bohemian estates refused to accept Ferdinand as their king, calling instead upon Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate to rule them. The latter’s acceptance of the position set off a general constitutional crisis in the Holy Roman Empire, which, together with Ferdinand’s decision to fight for his position in Bohemia, led to warfare throughout central Europe. The Habsburg armies crushed the Bohemian rebels at the Battle of the White Mountain, just outside of Prague, in 1620. The Renewed Land Ordinances, which Ferdinand issued in 1627, firmly established hereditary rule of his dynasty in the kingdom. A program of systematic recatholicization, which forced many Protestants to flee abroad or to go underground, brought the realm back under the control of the Church of Rome. Although Ferdinand’s forces in Germany won some significant victories against Protestant armies, the emperor’s attempts to restore Catholicism ultimately failed. Denmark, Sweden, and finally France entered the war against the Habsburgs and frustrated Ferdinand’s ambition. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) confirmed the status of both Calvinism and Lutheranism, along with Catholicism, as territorial churches within the German lands of the Holy Roman Empire. The German principalities won the official right to conduct foreign policy free of imperial oversight.See also Religion.
Historical dictionary of Austria. Paula Sutter Fichtner. 2014.
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Thirty Years War — • Though pre eminently a German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Thirty Years' War — Thirty Years War, the a European war fought mainly in Germany between 1618 and 1648. It led to the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire losing power in Europe … Dictionary of contemporary English
Thirty Years' War — n. a series of European wars (1618 48) on political and religious issues, fought orig. between German Catholics and German Protestants, but later involving the Swedish, French, and Spanish … English World dictionary
Thirty Years' War — For other uses, see Thirty Years War (disambiguation). 30 Years War Les Grandes Misères de … Wikipedia
Thirty Years' War — the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618 48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman… … Universalium
Thirty Years' War — The Thirty Years War was a religious political conflict that began in 1618 and ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia. its causes were essentially the antagonism between Protestants and Catholics and the unrest that developed in Europe… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
THIRTY YEARS' WAR — the name given to a series of wars arising out of one another in Germany during 1618 48; was first a war of Catholics against Protestants, but in its later stages developed into a struggle for supremacy in Europe. On the Catholic side were… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Thirty Years' War — noun a series of conflicts (1618 1648) between Protestants and Catholics starting in Germany and spreading until France and Denmark and Sweden were opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain • Instance Hypernyms: ↑war, ↑warfare • Part Meronyms:… … Useful english dictionary
Thirty Years' War — series of wars which were fought from 1618 to 1648 and involved several European countries (Germany, France, Sweden and Denmark) … English contemporary dictionary
Thirty Years' War — Тридцатилетняя война … Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов